What is the Khilafat Movement of 1919? CSS Pakistan Affairs Notes

What is the Khilafat Movement of 1919?

What is the Khilafat Movement of 1919? CSS Pakistan Affairs Notes


The Khilafat Movement was started by the Indian Muslims in 1919. After World War 1, the Great Ottoman Empire was in decline because of the defeat. The Khalifa of the Ottoman Empire was considered as a symbol of unity for the Muslims around the world. 

Furthermore, the Muslims of the subcontinent sought to do something about saving the Khalifa of the Ottoman Empire. Therefore, the Muslims started a movement in India in which the Muslims demanded the safety of the Ottoman Sultan (Khalifa) and this movement is called the Khilafat Movement.

Also Read: What is the Lucknow Pact (1916)?

Salient Features of the Khilafat Movement

Khilafat Committee by Muhammad Ali Ansari:

The Khilafat Committee was formed by Muhammad Ali Ansari. This committee was formed in order to discuss how best to deal with Khilafat issues.

Khilafat Delegation by Muhammad Ali Johar in 1919:

  1. Khilafat Delegation was made by Muhammad Ali Johar in 1919. They said to the British that whatever happens, the Khalifa should not be removed because he is a symbol of Islam and Muslims around the world. 
  2. The Muslim delegation met with the Viceroy but the British did not respond seriously.
  3. Therefore the Muslim Delegation decided that something radical had to be done in order to protect the Khalifa.

Non-cooperation Movement by Gandhi:

  1. Gandhi started the Non-Cooperation Movement. He supported the Khilafat Movement started by the Muslims and said let’s start a non-cooperating movement together for the protection of the Khalifa of the Ottoman Empire.
  2. In this movement, Gandhi became against buying British goods and products so that the British would incur revenue losses.

Jalliawala Bagh Incident in 1919:

In the Jalliawala Bagh incident in 1919, a peaceful protest against the British was fired upon and many Indians died in this incident. 

Hijrat Movement in 1920:

  1. The Hijrat Movement was started in 1920. In this movement, some Muslims decided that they could not live under British rule and they decided to migrate to Afghanistan. 
  2. So when they reached Afghanistan, they were not allowed to enter as a result they came back to the subcontinent. 

Mullas Uprising in 1921

The Mullas also started uprisings and they started protests against the Britishers in the subcontinent. The objective of this movement was to protect the Khalifa of Muslims and Islam.

Chaura Chauri 1922

  1. The Chuara Chuari was an incident that started in 1922. In this event, some extremists attacked a police station in Chaura Chauri. In this attack the police station was burned and some officials were killed.
  2. This event demotivated Gandhi and as a result, he left the movement. 
Also Read: The Minto-Morley Reforms

Results of The Khilafat Movement

Mismatch of Turkish and Indian Preferences:

The Turkish new emerging leader was Kamal Ataturk. He said that they do not want Khilafat. Instead, he was trying to promote modernism and Western Culture in Turkey. 

Lack of Unity Among Hindus and Muslims:

The different movements that were started in the subcontinent have cleared that the Muslims and Hindus are two different nations. Because this movement proved the lack of unity among the Hindus and Muslims in different events. 

Two Nation Theory:

This movement has developed the idea of the two-nation theory among the Muslims of India because during this movement the Indian National Congress leader Gandhi had left the Muslims alone. Therefore, the Muslim leadership decided to start a struggle for the new state and as a result, they started work on the concept of two-nation theory. 

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